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高一英语学习笔记,有了这些高一的英语就不用愁了

来源:本站原创  作者:方法君 热度:

  学姐寄语:A good beginning  is  half   done.

  还在担心上课跟不上笔记吗?正值当下青春年华,加油! 有了这些高一的英语就不用愁了,超详细!

  刚进高一呢,会接触很多新的单词,又长又难,让人头疼,!那提前打的预防针呢就是人教版书中的P91-P94的构词法,有了它们会很快记住一连串单词,我们只用固定的记一些以什么结尾,以什么开头。

  必修一UNIT1

  1  add相关用法

  示"加;增加",常与介词to连用,即"add … to …","把……加到……中去;往……中加……"。

  Eg:If you add 4 to 6, you get 10. 4加6等于10。

  Add some hot water if you think the coffee is much too strong. 如果你觉得这咖啡太浓,就加点儿热水。

  2. add表示"补充(说道)",即"又说;继续说"。

  Eg:"And I expect your little sister will come, too," added she. 她接着又说:"而且我希望你的小妹妹也能来。"

  Mother added that we must get back as soon as possible. 妈妈接着又说我们必须尽早回来。

  3. add to表示"增加;增添",其中to是介词,后接名词或代词。有时也可用来表示"(房屋的)扩建"或"(书的)续写"等。

  Eg:Each girl present at the party was wearing a flower in the hair, which added to their beauty. 参加晚会的姑娘人人头上都戴有一朵花,使得她们显得愈加漂亮。

  The soldiers were extremely tired and the heavy rain added to their difficulty. 战士们累极了,而大雨更是增加了他们的困难。

  This old house has been added to from time to time. 这幢老房子曾一再扩建。

  Has that book of his been added to later? 他的那本书后来曾续写过吗?

  4. add … up 表示"把……加起来";add up to … 则表示"加起来总和为……"。

  Eg:Can you add these ten figures up? 你能把这十个数字加起来吗?

  All these figures add up to 5,050. 所有这些数字加起来总和为5,050。

  此外,add up (to) 在口语中还有以下两种用法:

  1) 作"含义是;表示;等于;总而言之"讲。

  Eg:His remarks added up to a condemnation of my plan. 他的意见总之就是谴责我的计划。

  2) 作"有意义;讲得通"。

  EgI don't think what she said added up at the meeting. 我认为她在会上的发言没有意义。

  2cover掌握词义

  包含,播报,走完,进行

  3pay

  pay attention to 关注

  pay for支付

  pay off=pay by偿还

  pay a visit to 参观

  4prefer

  prefer to do 表示一时性的喜欢

  prefer doing表示长时间的,一贯性的喜欢

  。prefer sth 喜欢某物

  。prefer to do instead of doing 喜欢做某事而不是做某事

  。prefer sb to do sth 喜欢干某事

  。prefer A to B 喜欢做A,不喜欢作B

  。prefer doing A to doing B 喜欢做A,不喜欢作B

  。prefer to do A raher than do B 喜欢做A,不喜欢作B

  。prefer to do A than do B 喜欢做A,不喜欢作B

  5plan to do sth=mean to do sth 打算做某事

  mean doing  sth意味着做某事

  5 badly

  。They have both behaved very badly and I am very hurt.

  他们俩都很不友善,让我非常难过。

  。The European Parliament badly needs a president who can burnish its image.

  欧洲议会急需一位能改善其声望的主席。

  。He had wrenched his ankle badly from the force of the fall.

  他因摔倒而严重扭伤了脚踝。

  6upset

  用法】 用作动词,意为“to cause to turn or tip over “打翻,推翻”;

  “to distress or perturb mentally or emotionally使不适,使心烦”例如:I upset the soup all over the table.我把汤打翻在桌上了 The bad news upset me.那则坏消息使我心烦意乱 upset还可以用作形容词,意为“不适的;不舒服的”“混乱的”“心烦意乱的”例如:upset stomach吃坏了的肚子upset parents 心烦意乱的父母亲

  James was upset because he had lost his ticket.詹姆斯很烦躁,因为他把车票弄丢了 所以an upset man这样的表述是可以的 只是upset在描述人的时候通常用somebody+be动词+upset,更加符合英美人的用法

  7calm  down使镇静

  calm

  adj. (形容词)

  (水面)平静的,(天气)无风的 (of water) not rough, smooth; (of weather) not windy

  镇定的,沉着的; 宁静的,心平气和的 free from excitement, nervous activity, or strong feeling; quiet and untroubled

  n. (名词)

  [S][U]安静; 宁静; 镇静,不紧张 peace and quiet; absence of excitement of nervous activity

  [S][U](天气)无风,无浪(状态) an absence of wind or rough weather

  v. (动词)

  vt. & vi. (使)平静; (使)镇定 make or become calm

  8so和such用法

  so (adv.)表示“如此”、“这样”的意思。用作副词,修饰形容词和副词。主要结构有:

  。so +adj.+a/an +可数名词单数+that从句

  。so+adj./adv.+that从句

  。so+many/few/much/little+复数可数名词+that从句

  such(adj.)表示“如此”“这样”的意思。用作形容词,修饰名词。主要结构有:

  。such+a/an+adj.+单数可数名词+that从句

  。such+adj.+不可数名词+that从句

  。such+adj.+复数可数名词+that从句

  9 do/does/did加动词原形表示强调

  do表示加强语气的用法

  在一般现在时和一般过去时里,do(did)常常用来加强语气。第一种情况,就是用在肯定的陈述句中,放在主语和谓语动词之间,汉语中常以“的确”、“确实”来表示。如:

  I do think he is right.我确实认为他是对的。

  I do want to go!我真想去!

  He did read it.他确实读了。

  That's exactly what she did say.这就是她讲的话。

  第二种情况,就是用于肯定的祈使句开头,只使用现在时,如:

  Do go to school!可一定要上学呀!

  Do tell me what happened!一定告诉我发生了什么事!

  Do ask,if you have any questions.如果有问题,务必提出。

  如果祈使句原来动词是be,加强语气时要变成do be:

  Do be diligent!可要用功哦!

  以上两种情况do(did)均重读。第三种情况就是由于never,hardly,only then等副词放在句首加强语气,主语前需加 do(did)。如

  Never did I see him again.我从未再见过他。

  Hardly did I think it possible.我几乎认为这是不可能的。

  Only then did I realize the importance of agricultural labour.只是在那时我才认识到农业劳动的重要性。

  I don't know him.Nor do I want to.我不认识他,也不想认识

  10强调句

  。 It is the Communist Party that leads us to victory.是共产党领导我们走向胜利的 。

  。 It is John who/that might have bought a new book yesterday for Mary.昨天是约翰给玛丽买了一本新书。

  。 It is a new book that John might have bought yesterday for Mary.约翰昨天给玛丽买的是一本新书。

  。 It is yesterday that John might have bought a new book for Mary.约翰是在昨天给玛丽买了一本新书的。

  。 It was two days ago that he died. 他是两天前去世的。

  。 It was in the park that the child was lost. 这个孩子是在公园丢失的。

  。 It was for the meeting that he came here. 他是来这里开会。

  那句型这么重要练习一下吧

  还有一些你不知道的,可以用在写作上作为高级句型

  必修一UNIT1——UNIT2

  首先要说的呢,一定要注意我说重要的地方!

  1、concern

  这可是一个大词哦特别重要!

  一、用作动词

  ① 关系到,影响

  The World Cup taking place in Germany concerns all the fans throughout the world.

  在德国举行的世界杯足球赛影响到全世界所有的球迷们。

  注意:其过去分词concerned常用来作表语,意为“和……有关;牵涉”;而作定语,则意为“有关的”。

  It is reported that the pop singer is concerned with selling drug.

  据报道,那个流行歌手涉嫌贩毒。

  He asked all concerned to take an active part in helping the girl.

  他要求所有相关的人积极帮助那个女孩。

  Don’t interfere in what doesn’t concern you.别管与自己无关的事。

  ② 使担心;使关心;使烦恼

  The boy's poor performance at school concerned his parents.

  这个男孩在学校很差的表现,使他父母很担心。

  注意:其过去分词concerned通常作形容词用,意为“担心的;烦恼的;忧虑的”。

  The concerned parents were all concerned for the children's safety. 忧心忡忡的家长们都为孩子们的安全担忧。

  二、用作名词。

  1. 有关……的事(可数)

  That's my concern, so I'll do as I like about it.

  那是我的事,因此,我想怎么做就怎么做。

  2. 关怀;关心(不可数)

  Some people don't show much concern for our environment.

  有些人不太关心我们的环境。

  3. 焦急;忧虑(不可数)

  There is now considerable concern for their illness. 现在对他们的病相当担心。

  There is growing concern that …… 越来越担心……

  4. 对某人来说最重要或最感兴趣的事(可数)

  What are your main concerns as a golf player? 作为一个高尔夫球员,你最关心什么?

  5. 企业;公司;商行(可数)

  TCL is a large concern in our country. TCL 是我们国家的一个大企业。

  6. 股份(可数)

  Many managers have concerns in their businesses. 许多经理在企业中都占有股份。

  三、常用搭配:

  ① concern oneself with / in / about sth. “忙于某事 / 关心某事 / 参与某事”。如:

  She concerns herself with social welfare. 她从事社会福利工作。

  ② as / so far as sb. / sth. be concerned“就某人 / 某物而言”。如:

  As far as I’m concerned, I don’t object to your decision. 就我(个人)而言,我不反对你的决定。

  ③ be concerned in / with sth. “与某物有牵连”。如:

  He was concerned with the crime. 他与那起罪案有关。

  ④ be concerned to do sth.“把做某事视为自己的事情”。如:

  He is always concerned to help others.他总是把帮助别人看作是自己的事情。

  ⑤ show / express concern about / for “对……表示关心、担心”。如:

  She showed a great deal of concern for her son’s illness. 她非常担心她儿子的病情。

  ⑥ have a concern in / with… “与……有利害关系”。如:

  I have no concern with that company.我与那家公司没什么关系。

  ⑦ be concerned about… / that… “关心……;担心……”。如:

  I’m concerned that they may have got lost. 我担心他们可能迷路了。

  四、同根词:

  ① concerned形容词,意为“有关的;担心的”。如:

  Concerned parents held a meeting. 忧心忡忡的家长们开了一次会。

  ② concerning介词,意为“关于;有关”。如:

  Concerning his proposal, there are pros and cons. 关于他的提案,有赞成和反对两种意见。

  2、set相关短语

  set out,set off, set about, set apart, set aside

  。set out出发(旅程)+介词+n.;to do sth.着手做=set about doing sth.

  a.They set out on the last stage of their journey. 他们开始了旅行的最后一程。 Kate set out for the house on the other side of the bay.凯蒂出发去海湾另一边的房子She set out at dawn. 她天一亮就动身了。

  b. He set out to paint the whole house.他开始着手粉刷整幢房子

  c. 开启(新事物、困难、重要的事物等)My nephew is just setting out on a career in journalism.我侄子刚刚开始了他记者的事业所以,“开始一场表演”中的“开始”不用set out,简单用start/begin就可以:start a show / let the show begin/start

  。set about: 开始,着手+sth./doing sth.

  a. You must set about your work at once. 你必须立即开始工作。

  b. Do you know how to set about going on this work? 你知道怎样着手进行这项工作吗?

  set off=set out出发;引起,使发生;爆炸a.If you want to catch that train we'd better set off for the station immediately. 你要是想赶上那班火车,咱们就最好马上动身去火车站。 b.What time are you planning to set off tomorrow? 你打算明天几点钟启程?

  c.What he said set off a heated discussion.他所说的话引起了热烈的讨论。

  。set down前四种常用a. 放下,搁下:例句: to set down one's bag 放下包b. 写下,记下;登记:例句: The police sest down my car number. 警察记下了我的汽车号码c. 使(飞机)着陆;使降落:例句: My plane was set down in a heavy fog. 我乘坐的飞机在浓雾中着陆。d. 让(乘客)

  下车:例句: to set down the passengers 让乘客下车e. 把(货物)从车上卸下:例句: The train stopped at the station to set down lots of waste. 火车进站停车,卸下了许多废物。 f. 把…看做,把…认作(as):例句: He was set down as a fool. 他被看成是个傻瓜。g. 把…解释为…,把…归因于…(to):例句: to set one's silence down to his diffidence 把沉默归因于羞怯h. 制定;规定:例句: The rules for service have been set down. 有关修理业的规章已经出台。i. 确定;决定…的日期:例句: the plan to be set down 业已确定的计划j. 使坐下k. (马赛中)暂停…参赛l. [口语]申斥,谴责:例句: I was set down by my father. 我爸骂了我一顿。

  。set apart(for)留出专用

  The room is set apart for smoking/smokers.这屋子是为了专为人们抽烟/吸烟者而准备的。

  。set aside留出,拨出;把…置于一旁;不顾;不理会;驳回;取消

  set sth.aside for sth./sb.为某人或某物预留

  a. Maybe I should set aside just a minute a day to count my blessings and say "thank you". 或许,我应该每天留出一分钟时间,细数一下拥有的幸福,然后,真诚地说一声:“谢谢!”

  b.She set aside her book and lit a cigarette.她把书放在一旁,点着一根香烟。

  C.The car has been set aside and is out of use.那辆车已被搁置一旁不再使用了。

  d.I set aside my overcoat and took out the summer clothes.我把大衣放起来,拿出夏天衣服。

  3.表目的

  so as to do sth

  in order to do

  in order  that

  purpose

  又想到一个点,故意的怎么说来着?

  on purpose=by chance反义词by design=by  accident =accidently

  4、happen用法

  发生; 出现; 碰巧; 偶然遇到;

  happen是不及物动词,它的用法常见的有如下几种情况:

  。表示“某地(某时)发生了什么事”,常用“sth.+ happen +地点/时间”这一结构来表达,此时主语应是事情。例如:

  The story happened in 2003.这个故事发生在2003年。

  An accident happened in that street.那条街上发生了一起事故。

  。表示“某人出了某事(常指不好的事)”,要用“sth.+ happen+to sb.”这一结构来表达。例如:

  A car accident happened to her this morning.今天上午她发生了交通事故。

  What happened to you?你怎么啦?

  。表示“某人碰巧做某事”,要用“sb.+ happen+ to do sth.”这一结构来表达。例如:

  I happened to meet a friend of mine in the street yesterday.昨天我碰巧在街上遇到了我的一个朋友。

  。happen表示“碰巧或恰巧发生某事”时,还可用“It happens / happened that…”这一结构来表达。例如:

  It happened that Brian and Peter were at home that day.碰巧那天布莱恩和彼得在家了。

  It happened that he had to take part in a meeting that afternoon.碰巧那天下午他不得不参加一个会议。

  注:that从句中的主语是人时,此种结构可以与“sb.+ happen + to do sth.”结构互换。例如:

  It happened that Brian and Peter were at home that day.= Brian and Peter happened to be at home that day.

  词形变化:时态:happened,happening,happens。

  同义词:bechance,befall;materialise,materialize;encounter,find,bump,chance;come about,fall out,go on,hap,occur,pass,pass off,take place。

  反义词:dematerialise,dematerialize。

  单词分析:这些词语都可表示“发生”之意。

  happen:普通用词,泛指一切客观事物或情况的发生,强调动作的偶然性。

  occur:较正式用词,可指意外地发生,也可指意料中的发生。

  chance:侧重事前无安排或无准备而发生的事,特指巧合。

  take place:多指通过人为安排的发生。

  英语句子

  If this should happen, the speaker might feel down in the mouth.

  如果事情发生了,说话者会因为说错话而难过。

  Happening by chance or accident;fortuitous.

  偶然的偶然或意外发生的;偶然的

  Nothing have happened in the interim.

  在过渡期间,没发生过任何事。

  A train of events happened last year.

  去年发生了一系列的事情。

  He happened on the book in an secondhand bookstore.

  他碰巧在一家旧书店里发现了这本书

  5.over用法

  (1) prep. 在…上边;复盖

  on top of,covering

  [例句]

  I put a blanket over the sleeping child.

  我在睡着的孩子身上盖了一条毯子。

  He wore a thick coat over his ordinary coat.

  他在普通的上衣上面又穿了一件厚外衣。

  He went to sleep with a newspaper over his face.

  他脸上盖着一张报纸睡着了。

  (2) prep. 在…上方

  above,higher than

  [例句]

  A lamp was hanging over the table.

  桌子上方挂着一盏灯。

  There is a bridge over the river.

  河上有 桥。

  The sky is over our heads and the ground is under our feet.

  我们头上是天空,脚下是大地。

  (3) prep. 越过…;穿过

  from one side to the other,across

  [例句]

  The boys climbed over the wall.

  男孩子们爬过墙头。

  We went over the river in a boat.

  我们坐船过了河。

  He jumped over the brook.

  他跳过了那条小溪。

  (4) prep. 遍及

  in every part of

  [例句]

  He has travelled over the whole country.

  他已经游遍了全国。

  The fog spread over the town.

  雾遍全城。

  (5) prep. 多于;超过

  more than

  [例句]

  He has lived in Beijing over two years.

  他住在北京已两年多了。

  You have to be over 18 to see this film.

  超过十八岁的人才能看这部电影。

  I have had this camera over ten years.

  这部照像机我已经买了十年了。

  (6) prep. 关于

  concerning,in regard to

  [例句]

  The corporal felt very sad over the death of the boy.

  下士对男孩的死感到很悲伤。

  We look back over all that has happened during the last year.

  我们回顾了在过去一年中所发生的一切。

  (7) prep. 以;用;借;借助于;由

  by means of

  [例句]

  I heard the news over the radio.

  我在无线电里听到了这条消息。

  They are talking over the telephone.

  他们在通过电话谈话。

  (8) prep. 在…时

  while

  [例句]

  Over a bottle of wine,he spoke to a friend.

  他一边喝着酒一边和朋友说话。

  (9) prep. 职务高于

  superior in rank, office

  [例句]

  Mr White is over me in the office.

  怀特先生的职位比我高。

  (10) prep. 在…期间

  during,throughout

  [例句]

  Over the years,he read widely.

  在那些年中,他博览群书。

  He came to town over the weekend.

  周末他进城了。

  (11) adv. 横过;从一边到另一边

  across

  [例句]

  Let's row over to the other side of the river.

  咱们把船划到河那边去吧。

  He will sail over to France.

  他将渡海到法国去。

  I can see Henry over there.

  我可以看见亨利在那儿。

  (12) adv. 从一处到另一处

  from one place to another

  [例句]

  You must come over and see me.

  你一定要过来看看我。

  I will go over to his office and have a talk with him.

  我要到他办公室去找他谈一谈。

  Come over and see us on Sunday.

  星期天请到我们这里来玩吧。

  (13) adv. 自始至终

  through, from beginning to end

  [例句]

  He thought it over.

  他仔细地想了想。

  I'll read the question over once more.

  我得把问题从头到尾再读一遍。

  (14) adv. 重复地

  in repetition

  [例句]

  Read it over.

  再读。

  My sums were wrong and I had to do them over.

  我的得数错了,我得重做。

  (15) adv. 向下;翻倒

  down

  [例句]

  He tripped and fell over.

  他绊倒了。

  I slipped on the ice and fell over.

  我在冰上滑倒了。

  (16) adv. 翻转过来

  so that the other side is on top

  [例句]

  The goat rolled over,dead.

  山羊翻了一个身,死了。

  Turn the page over and you'll see a map.

  把这页翻过去就可以看见一张地图。

  Turn your books over.

  请把你们的书翻过来。

  (17) adv. 剩余;未用过

  left, not used

  [例句]

  If there's any soup over,we can eat it tomorrow.

  如果有汤剩下,我们可以明天吃。

  I gave him two glasses and still had three over.

  我给了他两只玻璃杯,还余下三只玻璃杯。

  Five goes into eight once with three over.

  五除八得一余三。

  (18) adv. 太;十分

  too

  [例句]

  He is over polite.

  他太客气了。

  I do not feel over well.

  我并不十分健康。

  (19) adv. 完了;结束

  ended, finished

  [例句]

  Our holidays will soon be over.

  我们的假日就要结束了。

  We'll go out when the rain is over.

  雨停了我们就出去。

  School is over.

  放学了。

  6、表示建议命令要求的词从句要用should+动词原形

  从句中的虚拟语气   在表示“坚持”、“命令”、“建议”、“要求”等后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气。这类动词有人归纳为“一个坚持(insist)、两个命令(order, command)、三个建议(advise, suggest, propose)、四个要求(demand, require, request, ask)”,这类虚拟语气由“should+动词原形”构成,其中的should在美国英语中通常可以省略。如:

  He insisted that I (should) go with them. 他坚持要我同他们一起去。

  He ordered that it (should) be sent back. 他命令把它送回去。

  The doctor advised [suggested] that he (should) not smoke. 医生建议他不要抽烟。

  He requires that I (should) appear. 他要求我出场。

  【注】(1) 其中引导宾语从句的that通常不省略。

  (2) 这类句子有时可用于被动结构,前面用先行词it作主语,代表后面的从句。如:

  It was proposed that this matter be discussed next time. 有人提议这事下次再讨论。

  (3) 动词insist后接宾语从句时,除可用虚拟语气外,也可用陈述语气,两者的区别是。如:若谓语动词所表示的动作尚未发生,或尚未成为事实,则用虚拟语气;若谓语动词所表示的动作已经发生,或已经成为事实,则要用陈述语气。比较:

  He insisted that I had read his letter. 他坚持说我看过他的信。

  He insisted that I should read his letter. 他坚持要我看他的信。

  (4) 与动词insist相似,动词suggest后接宾语从句时,除可用虚拟语气外,也可用陈述语气,两者的区别也是。如:若谓语动词所表示的情况尚未成为事实,则用虚拟语气,此时suggest通常译为“建议”;若谓语动词所表示的情况为既成事实,则要用陈述语气,此时

  的suggest通常译为“表明”、“认为”。比较并体会。如(from www.nmet168.com):

  He suggested that we (should) stay for dinner. 他建议我们留下吃饭。

  What he said suggested that he was a cheat. 他说的话表明他是个骗子。

  I suggested that you had a secret understanding with him. 我觉得你与他心照不宣。

  (5) 以上动词用作名词或派生出的名词时,相应的主语从句、表语从句或同位语从句也用虚拟语气。如:

  His demand is that we (should) set off at once. 他要求我们马上出发。

  He made the demand that we (should) set off at once. 他要求我们马上出发。

  (6) 在现代英语中,以上动词(包括其名词形式以及其派生名词)有时也可不用虚拟语气(但初学者宜慎用)。如:

  Her suggestion was we had our conversation in French. 她的建议是我们用法语交谈。

  He said that he would not be long and suggested that we waited for him. 他说他不会去很久,并建议我们等他。

  形容词important, impossible, necessary等后的主语从句通常用虚拟语气。如:

  It is impossible that he should go home. 他不可能会回家去。

  It is necessary that I should return it right now. 我有必要马上把它还回去。

  【注】(1) 在现代英语中,有时也可不用虚拟语气而用陈述语气,但初学者宜慎用。

  (2) 在It is amazing (strange, surprising, astonishing, a pity, a shame)以及 I am surprised (sorry) 和I regret等结构后的that 从句中有时也用should,表示说话人的惊异、懊悔、失望等情感,常含有“竟然”之意。如:

  It’s strange that he should be so rude. 他竟如此无礼,真是奇怪。

  I’m surprised that he should have failed. 他竟然失败了,这使我很吃惊。

  若不用虚拟语气也可以,则不带感情色彩,比较:

  It’s a pity that he failed the exam. 他考试没及格,真是遗憾。

  It’s a pity that he should have failed the exam. 他考试竟没及格,真是遗憾。

  7、have用法

  一、have作实意动词。

  1.表示“有”的意思。

  Look, I have wings, just like you. (JBⅤL1)

  He had fair hair and blue eyes. (JBⅥL2) 〔注1〕:其否定和疑问形式变化,在美国通常用助动词do。

  〔注2〕:在英国口语中常用have got代替have.

  Look, can’t you see I've got teeth, too,(JBⅤL1)

  I haven't got any jewelry.(SBⅠL5)

  2.have和一些其他名词连用,表示:

  (1)一种活动。

  We have no classes on Sunday.(上课)(JBⅡL11)

  they’re going to have a volleyball match.(举行比赛)(JBⅢL11)

  Are we going to have a meeting this week?(开会)(JBⅢL11)

  We are going to have a talk this afternoon.(听报告)(JBⅢL11)

  (2)患病。

  I have got a headache.(JBⅣL8)

  I have a bad cold.(JBⅤL3)

  (3)发生的情况。

  I've had so many falls that I'm black and blue all over.(跌跤)(JBⅣL10) (4)生育。

  The queen ant may have tens of thousands of babies in one summer.(SBⅠL14) 3.和一与动词同形的名词连用,表示一个动作(have+a+由动词转化和名词)。

  Are you going to have a swim.(JBⅢL1)

  I have a long talk with the teacher.(JBⅣL10)

  4.have on sth.或have sth. on,表示“穿着”、“戴着”(=to be wearing)。

  I noticed he had on bedroom slippers.(SBⅡL6)

  At the ball Motile had a diamond necklace on.

  5.表示“吃”、“喝”。

  I wanted to have a cup of tea and some eggs.(JBⅢL10)

  Does she have lunch at home?(JBⅡL11)

  6.组成复合结构即“have+宾语+宾语补足语”。

  (1)不加to的动词不定式作宾语补足语(have sb. do sth.),表示让、叫某人做某事。 The soldier had him stand with his back to his father.(SBⅠL17) 〔注〕:否定结构表示“不能让…”或“从未有人…”。

  We won't have you blame it on others.

  She had never had anybody speak to her that way before.

  (2)现在分词作宾语补足语(have sb.(sth.)doing),表示让(使)某人做某事。

  …the two men had their lights burning all night long…

  (3)过去分词作宾语补足语(have sb. (sth.)done),表示:

  ①使(让,请)别人作某事,表示的动作是别人做的。

  Emperor Qin Shi Huang had all the walls joined up.(SBⅠL10) …he should have new clothes made of this splendid cloth for the coming great procession.(SBⅠ L8)

  ②遭遇到某事。

  Houses near airports sometimes have their windows broken.(SBⅠL12)

  Workers in some industries have their hearing harmed by the noise of the machine.(SBⅠL12)

  二、have与to一起构成情态动词,表示“不得不”、“必须”,可用于各种时态。

  I have to look after her at home.(JBⅢL4)

  三、have做助动词与动词的过去分词一起构成现在完成时

  和过去完成时。

  Great changes have taken place the last two years.(JBⅥL3)

  They said that the Arab had stolen their camel.(JBⅤL4)

  四、have用于“情态动词+have+过去分词”的结构,有

  推测、假设之意。

  1.must+have+过去分词,表示对过去时间发生的动作或存在的情况的推测,一般用于肯定句。

  Her father thought that she must have met a fairy.(SBⅠL10)

  You must have left your bag in the theatre.

  2.can(could)+have+过去分词,表示对过去发生事情的“不肯定”,常用于否定句和疑问句。

  He can't have been to your home, he doesn't know your address.

  3.should+have+过去分词,表示“某事本该早做而实际未做”,用于肯定句。

  You should have been here five minutes ago.(SBⅡL10)

  五、have用于某些成语,表示固定的意思。

  1.have a word(a few words)with sb.,表示和某人说一(几)句话。

  Where's Peter? I want to have a word with him.(SBⅢL13)

  2.had better+不带to的动词不定式,表示“…最好…”。

  I'd better go and look for him now.(JBⅢL2)

  3.have nothing(something)to do with,表示“和…无(有)”关系。

  Most of questions had nothing to do with Edison's lessons.

  HAVE的用法详解

  1. 助动词have+过去分词构成完成时态。

  I have never seen such a strange man.

  我从未见过这么奇怪的人。

  Yes, he has been here twice but hasn't had his hair cut yet.

  是啊,他来了两次还没把头发理了。

  He's gone to your house.

  他去你家了。

  2. HAVE+宾语+过去分词表示让某事由某人做。

  Can I have my hair cut now?

  你现在可以给我理发吗?

  Oh, you haven't had your hair cut yet.

  噢,你还没理发呀。

  3. HAVE+宾语+原形不定词表示请或让某人做某事。

  Or I can have my assistant help me do it.

  或者我可以让我的助手帮我来做。

  4. have作为本动词表示"有、拥有"的意思。

  No, I don't have much time.

  不行,我没那么多时间。

  Oh, you still have many customers today.

  噢,你今天还有很多顾客呀。

  ①have to通常指由于客观原因则不得不做某事,意思为“不得不”。

  e.g. It's dark now. I have to go home.

  天黑了,我不得不回家。

  It's raining, and I have to stay at home.

  外面在下雨,我不得不呆在家里。

  一、have to与一般情态动词的异同

  相同点:

  一般的情态动词不能单独作谓语,后面必须接动词原形一起构成谓语,have to 也是这样。

  不同点:

  1、一般的情态动词没有人称和数的变化,而且所用的时态也受到一定的限制,而have to 有人称和数的变化。可用于多种时态中:一般现在时中当主语是第三人称单数时要用has to,其余的人称用have to,一般过去时中要用had to;一般将来时中则要用will have to.

  e.g. She has to go to school by bus.

  她不得不乘公汽上学。

  You'll have to see the doctor if you get ill.

  如果你生病了,就得去看医生。

  2、否定句和疑问句的构成方式不同:

  ①一般的情态动词直接在后面加not构成否定句,把这些情态动词提到句首就构成一般疑问句。

  ②而have to 的否定句和疑问句的构成往往要借助于助动词do的适当形式或助动词will即have to, has to, had to和will have to的否定式分别为don't have to, doesn't have to, didn't have to和won't have to,疑问句是在句首加助动词do的相应形式,句中还原成have to或把will放到句首,这里have to简直就是一个十足的行为动词。

  e.g. What does she have to do?

  她必须做什么?

  You didn't have to wait for me yesterday.

  昨天你没有必要等我

  have

  v.(动词)

  had[h²d] hav.ing, has[h²z]

  v.tr.(及物动词)

  To be in possession of:

  拥有:

  already had a car.

  已经有一辆车

  To possess as a characteristic, quality, or function:

  气质:有…的特征、性质或功能:

  has a beard; had a great deal of energy.

  蓄着胡子;精力充沛

  To possess or contain as a constituent part:

  包含:作为某物的组成部分而含有或包含:

  a car that has an automatic transmission.

  有自动传动系统的汽车

  To occupy a particular relation to:

  有特殊关系:

  had a great many disciples.

  有很多信徒

  To possess knowledge of or facility in:

  具有某方面的知识或才能:

  has very little Spanish.

  懂很少一点西班牙语

  To hold in the mind; entertain:

  保持在脑中;怀抱:

  had doubts about their loyalty.

  对他们的忠诚怀有疑虑

  To use or exhibit in action:

  发挥:通过行动来运用或显示:

  have compassion.

  发挥同情心

  To come into possession of; acquire:

  占有;获得:

  Not one copy of the book was to be had in the entire town. 整个城镇都没有这本书

  To receive; get:

  收到;得到:

  I had a letter from my cousin.

  我收到堂弟寄来的信

  To accept; take:

  接受;收纳:

  I'll have the green peas instead of the spinach.

  我想要份青豆而不是菠菜

  To suffer from:

  经受,遭受:

  have defective vision.

  视力不好

  To be subject to the experience of:

  经历,经验:

  had a difficult time last winter.

  去年冬天日子不好过

  To cause to, as by persuasion or compulsion:

  促使:通过劝说或强迫导致…:

  had my assistant run the errand.

  让我的助手跑腿

  To cause to be:

  使…成为:

  had everyone fascinated.

  把每个人都吸引住了

  To permit; allow:

  允许;许可:

  I won't have that kind of behavior in my house.

  在我家中我可不允许做那种事

  To carry on, perform, or execute:

  执行,做,实行:

  have an argument.

  进行争吵

  To place at a disadvantage:

  必修一unit2

  本单元需要掌握的单词如下

  阅读词汇

  official    block   apartment  vocabulary  usage

  accent   lightning  identity

  写作词汇

  conquer  actually  base  voyage  enrich  order

  command  request straight

  除了上面那些,我们还有一些需要拓展的单词,需要大家用心记忆!

  1、base

  base on “以……为根据”,用法应是 base A on B如:

  ① Edison based his ideas on scientific experiment. 爱迪生的想法是建立在科学实验的基础上的。

  ② You should base your opinion on facts. 你的意见都要以事实为根据。

  Ⅱ。 be based on “以……为根据”; “根据……”;“基于……”用法是A be based on B

  ① What he said is based on fact. 他所说的话是以事实为根据的。

  ② The story is based on real life. 那故事是根据现实生活而写的。

  ③ Some modern languages are based on Latin. 在些现代语言是以拉丁文为基础的。

  看一下最主要的用法吧,会在题中出现的!

  1.What are you doing?A textbook _____ a new mehod of teaching physics.I want my friend to take a look at it.A.is based on B.based on C.basing on D.which based on2.He based his idea ___scientific experiment.A. at B.with C.on D.in选哪个,为什么?

  第一题:分析句子可知横线上需填非谓语动词,A选项is based on是固定搭配“基于…”或“以…为基础”在这等同于base…on(同时也是个谓语动词)B选型有两种可能:1.非谓语动词2.base的过去式(从题目意思结构来看,不可能是过去式)C选型表主动或进行D选型出现了which作主语引导的定语从句,那么be动词就不能省略(be based on)还原回来应该是A textbook which is based on a new method of teaching physics……(be done有自己独立的主语属于谓语动词的范畴而done恰好相反)根据A选项所分析的be based on这一固定搭配,排除C、D。A是谓语动词,而题干是非谓语动词所以选择B

  第二题 同上 base…on

  2、command

  及物动词 vt.

  。命令[O2][+that]

  I command that he go at once.

  我命令他立即就去。

  I command you to start at once.

  我命令你立即动身。

  。指挥,统率;控制

  He was told to command his temper.

  有人叫他控制脾气。

  。博得,赢得

  Honesty commands respect.

  诚实博得尊敬。

  。俯瞰,俯临

  The hill commands the sea.

  这座山俯临大海。

  。拥有,掌握

  不及物动词 vi.

  。指挥;控制;命令

  名词 n.

  。命令[C]

  Who issued the command to fire?

  谁下令开枪的?

  。  控制,控制权;指挥,指挥权[U]

  He has a hundred men under his command.

  他指挥一百个人。

  。司令部,指挥部[C][G]

  。掌握;运用能力[U][S1]

  She has a good command of spoken Engli sh.

  她的英语口语很熟练。

  。【电脑】指令[C]

  。视界;俯瞰[S]

  3、request

  用作名词,意为“请求”,是可数名词。如:

  It is my last request — I shall never ask you anything again. 这是我的最后一个请求,我再也不会向你提任何要求。 She refused all requests for an interview. 她拒绝了所有的采访请求。

  、用作动词,意为“请求”。这时,其后可以跟名词、不定式的复合结构以及从句作宾语。尤其要注意,当从句作宾语时,从句谓语常用“(should) + 动词原形”结构。如:

  You have to request permission if you want to take any photos here. 如果你想要在这儿拍照的话,需要申请准许。 We requested him to leave the room as soon as possible. 我们请求他尽快离开这个房间。 I requested that he (should) leave. 我请求他离开。 [拓展]

  at the request of 根据……的请求 by request 应……的请求 request from 向……请求 [小试] 翻译下列句子。

  。 玛丽申请准许在这里拍摄。

  。 他写信请求父亲来看他。

  。应观众的要求她又唱了一首歌。

  。 我希望这个请求不会太麻烦你。

  Key:

  。Mary requested permission to film here.

  。He wrote a letter requesting his father to come to see him.

  。 She sang another song by request of the audience.

  。 I hope this request would not trouble you too much.

  4、come短语

  词语释义

  vi.

  (came [keim]; come)

  来, 到; 走近; 接近; 到来, 来临

  产生, 发生; 发现; 引起

  [常与to连用]来自; 归因是, 结果是

  出现于, 位于

  达到, 延伸; 伸展到

  [常与 on, along 连用]成熟起来

  需要(某种)代价(才能实现, 得到)

  [常与 of, from 连用]出身, 出生于

  [常与 up 连用]进展; 提升

  [常与 to 连用]等于, 总共, 共达…

  有; 装; 存

  生活得(如何)

  (货物等)被供应

  [常与 near 连用]完成, 趋于完成

  [常接不定式]心变软, 开始同情起来

  进入, 投入

  [用于祈使句, 表示命令, 鼓舞, 不耐烦或指责]好啦! 注意! 喂!

  [与 how 连用, 构成疑问句, 助动词 " do " 常被省略并要求主谓倒装](怎么)会的

  ⑵作联系动词]是; 变为, 成为 ⑵

  [美俚](性交时)达到兴奋的顶点[高潮] ⑵

  (要做到或得到)是(容易, 因难等)。

  习惯用语

  as they come 按照原来的样子 [口]非常, 极其

  Easy come easy go. (=Light come, light go; Lightly come, lightly go. )[谚]来得容易去得快(常指财物)。

  Everything comes to him who waits. [谚]耐心等待,必有所得。

  First come first served. [谚]先到先招待; 先到先供应。

  How come? [口]为什么? 怎么会? 怎么搞的?

  How comes it that? (=How is it that…?) [口]为什么? 怎么回事?

  How comes it about that? (=How is it that…?) [口]为什么? 怎么回事?

  if it comes to that 如果事情到了那样…

  Let'e them all come. 让他们都来吧 (对大家的挑战, 表示自信、蔑视)。

  Let them all come. 让他们都来吧 (对大家的挑战, 表示自信、蔑视)。

  to come 对未来的,即将到来的

  come about 发生关于…; (风等)改变方向; 转帆, 转航向

  come across 偶然碰见; 无意中找到 出现于, 想到 [口]有效果, 使人能理解 [俚]付欠款, 捐(款), 交钱 相认, 照办, 吐露实情

  come after 跟着…来, 跟在…后面 来取, 寻找; 争取 追赶 继承

  come again 再说一遍 (从昏迷中)清醒过来 [方]死后现形

  come alive 活跃起来; 显得象真的似的

  come along 一起来, 一道走; 同意, 赞成, (祈使语气)请过来, 快一点儿; 进展; 进步

  come amiss 不称心, 不合适, 不受欢迎

  come and get it [美口](饭预备好了)请过来吃吧!

  come and go 来来往往; 作短暂访问; 变化不定

  come and go upon 信赖, 信任; 有行动自由

  come apart 裂开; 破裂; 垮下来, 崩溃

  come at 攻击, 扑向; 达到; 得到

  come away 脱开; 断开; 离开, 发芽, 生长; [方]跟我一起走; [苏]到屋里来

  come away none the wiser 结果还是一点也不明白而归

  come back 回来; 忆起, 恢复原有地位[健康]; (风尚)又流行起来; [美俚]还嘴

  come before 位于…之前; 被交付处理[审判]; 被提出

  come between 在…中间; 离间; 使分开; 妨碍某人做某事

  come by 弄到, 获得 偶然搞到, 偶然得到 经过, 从旁边过去 [美方]来串门, 拜访

  come clean [美俚]全盘招供, 坦白交代; 修完课程(大学毕业)

  come down 下来, 倒下; 倒塌; 砍伐[倒]; 下(雪, 雨等); 降落; 拿出钱来接济; (从城市)来到(乡下); 大学毕业;【戏】走出戏台口; 从兴奋剂作用中醒过来; [美俚]发生

  come down on 向…索取(钱等); 申斥, 严厉惩罚; 强烈反对

  come down upon 向…索取(钱等); 申斥, 严厉惩罚; 强烈反对

  come down hard on 向…索取(钱等); 申斥, 严厉惩罚; 强烈反对

  come down hard upon 向…索取(钱等); 申斥, 严厉惩罚; 强烈反对

  come down to 下垂到, 达到; 流传下来, 可归结为; 屈尊; 被迫

  come down with [口]出钱; 得(病), 付款

  come for 为某种目的而来取; 来接; 向…冲来; 对…进行袭击

  come forth 出来; 涌现; 被公布; 出世

  come forward 被提出; 自愿效劳; 主动响应; 增长

  come from 是…地方人; 产自 来自, 是…结果, 起因于 出身于, 生于

  come home 回家;【航海】锚脱掉; 打中; 说得正对; 刺中(…心病); 打动人心; 被理解, 影响深远

  come in 进来; 到达; 开始; 开始使用…; 开始生产; (潮水)升涨; (火车)进站; (船舶)进港; 到成熟季节; 当选, 就任, 执政, (党派等)上台; (钱)到手; 起作用; 【信】(对对方的呼唤进行)回话; 回复; 流行起来; 干涉; [美俚](母牛)下仔

  come in for 得到; 领取(份儿); 受到(处分); 吸引; 适用于, 对…有用

  come in handy 将来(可能)有用

  come in on 参加, 参与

  come in upon 参加, 参与

  come into 进入; 得到;继承(财产等)

  come it ?痉? 拿出钱来; 泄密; (拳击)示弱; 卖弄; 吹牛; 获得成功

  come it over 胜过, 骗过, 对…摆威风

  come it strong [俚]做得过份; 过于夸大

  come near 不差于,不劣于, 不亚于, 及得上; 几乎, 差一点就

  come of 来自…; 由…引起; 是…的结果; 是在…生长大的

  come from 在…来;出生于…; 由…引起; 是…的结果; 是在…生长大的

  come off (从…)离开, 走开 从…跌下, 从…下来 分离, 脱落 发生, 举行 [口]实现, 成功, 有效果 表现(好、坏), (事情)进展得 逃脱, 结束, 摆脱

  come off it [口]别装蒜了, 别胡诌[胡闹, 吹牛]了, 别骗人了

  come off well 运气好,幸运到来, 走运, (事情)有满意的结果

  come off with 发表(言论), 宣布

  come on 加油!偶然遇见(某人), 无意中发现(某物) 来临, 袭来 (雨、雪等)开始下; 过来 出现 跟着来, 跟上来 进餐, 进展, 成长, 增长 登场, 上演 表现出来; [美俚]留下印象; 产生效果 (问题等)被提出来 得啦, 快点, 别胡扯啦

  come upon 偶然遇见(某人), 无意中发现(某物) 来临, 袭来 (雨、雪等)开始下; 出现 跟着来, 跟上来 进餐, 进展, 成长, 滋长 登场, 上演 表现出来; [美俚]留下印象; 产生效果 (问题等)被提出来 得啦, 快点, 别胡扯啦

  come out 出来 出现 (芽)生出来, (花)开 出版 暴露; 传出 初次露面, 初次登台, 初入社会 发展, 进展, 结局 (考试、比赛等)结果是…, 名列第… 表露, 呈现 (污点等)被去掉, (颜色)褪去 (题目, 公式等)被解出来 罢工 出狱 声名 公开自己是同性恋者

  come out against 出来反对; 反抗

  come out at (总数、平均数等) 达, 共计

  come out flat-footed [美口]打开天窗说亮话

  come out for 声明支持; 表示同意, 赞同; 出去(散步, 野餐, 远足等)

  come out in (部分皮肤)发出(红斑, 丘疹等)

  come out of 出自, 生自; (冲破…)出来; 脱离, 摆脱

  C-out of that! [俚] 走开! 滚蛋! 住手

  come out with 被伴随着; 透露; 说出; 公布

  come over 顺便访问; 发生; 侵占; 占上风; 过来, 从远方来; 转到…方面来; (感觉, 影响等)攫住; 支配; [口]欺骗

  come round 到来; 再度来; 来访; 绕道而行; [口]息怒; 消气; 苏醒过来; 恢复知觉或健康; 回心转意; 屈服, 让步; 哄; 改变方向

  come around 到来; 再度来; 来访; 绕道而行; [口]息怒; 消气; 苏醒过来; 恢复知觉或健康; 回心转意; 屈服, 让步; 哄; 改变方向

  come round to [口]经过一段时间耽搁以后又着手(做某事)

  come round to doing sth. [口]经过一段时间耽搁以后又着手(做某事)

  come short home 遭到不幸; 遭到失败

  come through 经受(困难)而活过来; 脱险; 完成, 胜利; (消息)传出; (电话)接通; 通行; [美俚]资[捐]助; [美俚]招供; 照办; 拿出(钱等); [美]改变信仰, 变节

  come to 达到, 总计为; 终于; 结果是; 苏醒(过来);把船朝着风头; 停泊; 继承(财产); (马, 牛群等)迅速向左转

  come to oneself (昏迷后)苏醒过来; 恢复理性, 停止胡闹

  come to pass 发生; 实现

  come to sb. (事情)临到某人头上; (财产)遗留给某人

  come to stay 留下不走, 住下来; 长久存在; 已成定局

  come to that (=if it comes to that) 如果事实是那样的话; 无论如何

  come to think of it [口]我想起来了

  come to this 等于这样说, 就是这样 达到这种地步; 出现这种情况

  come together 集[会]合; 夫妇同居生活; (对立双方)消除分歧

  come under 归入, 纳入 受到(影响, 支配等) 属于…职权范围

  come up 走近; 上(楼)来; (从土中)长出, 发芽; 被提出; 流行起来; [英]进大学; 进城(尤指去伦敦); 上升; 抬头; [俗]呕吐; 快! (驱使牛、马行走或前进时的吆喝)

  come up against 遇到(困难); 遭到(反对); 与…矛盾

  come up smiling [口](遭到挫折, 失败之后)以勇敢和乐观的姿态出现

  come up to 并驾齐驱; 达到; 数到; 不负(期望); 合乎(标准等)

  come up with 追及; 呈出; 供给; 复仇; 责罚; 提出(建议); [口]找到(答案, 解决办法)

  come upon 偶然碰见(某人) (灾难, 寒潮等)突然向…袭来 突然产生于… 成为…的负担 要求(支持或帮助)

  come on 偶然碰见(某人) (灾难, 寒潮等)突然向…袭来 突然产生于… 成为…的负担 要求(支持或帮助)

  come what may 不管发生什么事情, 不管怎样

  come what will 不管发生什么事情, 不管怎样

  come with 伴随…发生; 与…一起供给

  come within 进入(听力、视力、射程等)所及的范围; 属于, 归入

  Coming up! [口](指饭菜)准备好了!这就端上来了!

  例句

  1. We'll go to a meeting in Birmingham and come straight back.[1]

  我们将去伯明翰参加会议,然后马上回来。

  2. Come along, lad. Time for you to get home.

  来吧,小伙子。你该回家了。

  3. The news will come as a great relief to the French authorities.

  这个消息会让法国当局大大松一口气。

  4. Many of the clothes come from the world's top fashion houses.

  这些服装中有很多出自世界顶级时装设计公司。

  5. Don't expect me to come and visit you there.

  别指望我会去那儿看你。

  6. Come on over, we've got lots of the old gang here.

  过来吧,好多老朋友都在这儿。

  7. The final word will still come from the Secretary of State.

  最后仍然要由国务卿来定夺。

  8. Physical and ideological barriers had come down in Eastern Europe.

  物质和意识形态上的障碍在东欧已不复存在。

  9. Rumours of financial scandals have come bubbling back to the surface.

  有关财务丑闻的谣言接连不断地冒出来。

  10. Interest rates would come down as the recovery gathered pace.

  随着复苏的加速,利率会降下来。

  11Come this way, please.

  请向这里来。

  12All our good planning came to naught.

  我们所有的好计划结果都成泡影。

  13The railway line comes to the airport.

  铁道干线直达飞机场。

  14The solution of the problem has just come to me.

  我刚想起如何解答这个问题。

  5more  than

   “more than+名词”表示“不仅仅是”

  例:Mary is more than a teather; she is a writer, too. 玛丽不仅仅是一位老师,她也是以一位作家

  。 “more than+数词”含“以上”或“不止”之意。

  例:More than one person has made this suggestion. 不止一人提过这个建议。

  。“more than+形容词”等于“很”或“非常”的意思,

  例:I assure you I am more than glad to help you. 我向你保证我非常高兴去帮助你。

  。 more than + (that)从句,其基本意义是“超过(=over)”,但可译成“简直不”“远非”。 难以,完全不能(其后通常连用情态动词can)

  例:That is more than I can understand .那简直不是我能理解的。或那超过我的理解。

  never就是从来没有,表否定,never more than 相当于no more than 不超过之意

  这个非常重要,大家一定要用心记,它会出现在阅读理解中,考察你的判断能力,还会出现在短改中,各处都会有陷阱,

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